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Looking for sheet music to perform? Recordings to listen to? Books and articles about music or a related topic? This libguide will help!

Creating & Citing Music Examples/Figures

A music example/figure is a quotation, so you must format and cite the example correctly. Turabian terminology uses "figure" instead of "example." You can insert music figure into your paper by photocopying from a score, or using Finale, Sibelius, or other score-writing programs.

Formatting the music figure:
1. Include the clef(s). If the measures you've copied from the score do not include clefs, then add them yourself on each line of the example.

2. Include measure numbers. Remember to use mm. for multiple measures (ms. means "manuscript"). example: mm. 36-39.

3. Give a title to your figure. Typically: Figure Number. Composer First Name Last, Title of work, measure numbers. Footnote subscript.

Figure 1-3. Johann Sebastian Bach, Sarabande from Violoncello Suite No. 2 in D minor, BWV 1008, mm. 16-19.³

Bach example

Citing the Music Example

Remember to insert a subscript at the end of your music example title, and to supply a corresponding footnote. The footnote gives publication information about the score you used for your example. For assistance in formatting citations for scores, click HERE.

The footnote for the example to the left is:

³ From the edition Johann Sebastian Bach, Six Suites for Violoncello Solo, BWV 1007-1012, ed. Egan Voss (München: Henle, 2000), 12.

For more info....

These are especially helpful books about research in music:

Sampsel, Laurie J. Music research: a handbook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. CSUEB Book Stacks ML113 .S28 2009

Gottlieb, Jane. Music library and research skills. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. CSUEB Book Stacks ML3797 .G68 2009