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Citation and Plagiarism: Chicago Style

Focuses on Citation rather than Plagiarism: the positive rather than the negative

Chicago Styles: Author-Date and Humanities (Turabian)

There are two types of "Chicago Style," author-date and notes and bibliography.  Details about both are covered in the Chicago Manual of Style.  For the online version, click here:  Persistent URL for this record.  For the latest print version, ask at the Reference desk in the Library.

Regardless of your citation format, you still need to follow these steps to create a citation from scratch:

  1. gather the data from the item you're citing, including the specific item and any item from which it comes
  2. re-format that data into the citation style requirements
  3. place the data in the correct order according to the citation style
  4. punctuate the citation according to the citation style
  5. add any needed information if you are citing an electronic format

As with other citations, there are options for identifying a citation that is essentially already formatted:

  • for books, enter your data into http://www.worldcat.org.  When you find the exact same edition of the book, you can click on the title to go to the full record and look for the "cite/export" button.  You can choose one of the Chicago style formats.  This gets you started.  If you are citing a chapter within a book, you will have to insert that information in the appropriate place.  If you are citing an e-book, you will need to add information about how to access that work.  
  • for articles, you can either take a citation from the database where you found the article during your search or you can search the article in http://www.worldcat.org.  As with books, you will need to add information about how to access any electronic work.  
  • In both cases, please be sure you verify citations you take from other sources.  They are helpful, but they can have errors and it is your responsibility to ensure that the citation is correct.

Chicago Style: Author-Date

The author-date system is recommended for works in the physical, natural, and social sciences.  The biggest difference between this and the alternate Chicago style is that the date appears after the author.   Information about this form of Chicago style can be found in Chapter 15 of the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.  Below are two samples, one for an article and one for a book. Note:  Due to the nature of "libguides," I am unable to create a hanging indent for these citations.  A hanging indent is the opposite of a paragraph indent.  The first line is out to the left margin and the remaining lines are indented (see the Chicago manual for the layout).

Albiston, Catherine R. 2005. "Bargaining in the Shadow of Social Institutions: Competing Discourses and Social Change in the Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights." Law and Society Review 39 (1): 11-47.

Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007.  The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945. New York: Knopf.

For additional author-date examples, please see http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-2.html

Chicago Style: Notes and Bibliography

The Notes and Bibliography system is based on a system of "notes" that includes endnotes and a bibliography.  The primary difference between this and the author-date system is that the year of publication appears at or near the end of the citation rather than directly after the author, although there are other differences, too. Information about this form of Chicago style can be found in chapter 14 of the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. The format of the "notes" is different from the format in the bibliography. Below are two samples of citations formatted for a bibliography, one for a book and one for an article.   Note:  Due to the nature of "libguides," I am unable to create a hanging indent for these citations.  A hanging indent is the opposite of a paragraph indent.  The first line is out to the left margin and the remaining lines are indented (see the Chicago manual for the layout).

Levitt, Steven D., and Stephen J. Dubner.  Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. New York: William Morrow, 2005.

Whitney, Frank P. "The Six-Year High School in Cleveland." School Review 37, no. 4 (1929): 267-71. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1078814.

For additional examples for the Notes and Bibliography format, see http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-1.html